Drug toxicity


Drug toxicity refers to the level of damage that a compound can cause to an organism when it outhrow the drug’s therapeutic effect. The toxic effects of a drug are dose-dependent and can easily affect an entire system as in the CNS or a specific organ such as the liver. Drug toxicity occurs at doses that exceed the therapeutic efficacy of a drug; however, toxic and therapeutic effects can occur simultaneously. It can be assessed at the behavioral or physiological level. Behaviorally, drug toxicity can be exhibited in a variety of ways, for example, decreases in locomotor activity, loss of motor coordination, cognitive impairment. Examples of physiological effects include lesions to tissue, neuronal death, and disrupted hormonal cycles. Physiological factors that affect the fate of drugs in the body and thereby have effects on their pharmacology and toxicology involve the systems that control absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. The main factors are disease, genetics, and age. Nutritional status, sex, hormonal status (e.g., the effects of pregnancy), and circadian rhythm have important influences. 

KeywordsDrugs, toxicity, mechanisms, idiosyncratic responses, covalent binding, short-term assays

Subtracks

  1. TYPES OF DRUG TOXICITY

  2. THRESHOLD OF TOXICOLOGICAL CONCERN

  3. ALTERNATIVES

  4. PREVENTION

 


 


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